Correction to Radiodecay

physics is a coarse midcourse correction to extrapolating approximations

[See also: neutrino; inner cosmos]

Typical free-neutrons gyrate through 1026 internal phase-state configurations before popping-out an electron and a neutrino. (A qualitative statement: quantitative if there were a way to distinguish.) The likelihood that one of these phase-states is a trigger, is specious: smaller than a purported quark;- and which should have then yielded uniform -not exponential- radiodecay, without some state-randomizer. Then-also a typical uranium-238 nucleus does typically 1042 gyrations, and its principal radiodecay is alpha not beta; Plus, it spontaneously fissions (into molybdenum-range plus cerium-range and neutrons) in an additional mode even rarer-- a second trigger-phase-state, six orders smaller? ... More reasonably, something instigates, radiodecay:

A more considerate estimation of spontaneous nuclear decay (neutrons and nuclei), and IT internal-transition energy-state changes, attributes the apparent time-exponential e-kt rate (proportionable to the quantity of nuclides) to aether chop: dominantly abundant background neutrino radiation flux residual since early cosmic events thirteen billion years ago expanded to photon-extinction. [*] Radionuclides bounce neutrinos; and long-life radionuclides, thorium, uranium, bounce extremely rare MeV neutrinos, in billions of years, -proving some exist since the MeV era; estimably the post-neutrino-transparency era,- while other radionuclides bounce much lower energy neutrinos, thousands, millions, per second. (Rarer neutrino-captures likely result in the spontaneous fission events.)

(A secondary state-randomizer is the ground-state electron pair borrowing energy from passing photons -a factor illustrated in the fully-ionized-Dysprosium-Holmium-163 co-version test at 60KeV,- or altogether electron-tunneling, as in mock cold-fusion.)

The original NDE "Nucleon Decay Experiment" failure to find proton decay, means the maximum neutrino background does not detectibly exceed proton-spallation energy (well-above the 10MeV of the most energetic supernova neutrinos). The NDE became, the "Neutrino Detection" Experiment, in that experimental default, and with the success of neutrino experiments.

Given the extremely tiny likelihood of neutrinos (demi-photons) being caught by nucleons (and yet-to-be-calculated stimulated emissions) and the low energy momentum contribution by relatively often glancing elastic deflections, radiodecay and spontaneous fission-spallation events in nuclei and neutrons occur at apparently random-exponential rates (proportionable to the quantity of such nuclides) when a neutrino bumps a nucleus sufficiently to distort its charge-state-field into a trigger-option, already near beta-drip, alpha-drip, neon-magnesium-drip, fission-split (Molybdenum'ish-95-drip, from Strontium-88, sharing 3-13 neutrons); beta-capture;- and the nucleus goes the process from there.

(Only in short picosecond radiodecays are nuclear internal gyrations significant to the rate, or possibly dominantly.)

* [The correlative cosmic neutrino-transparency is disputed, as the mean-free-path remained dense until coarsely six hundred million light-years radius (the cosmos being 1024 sol-masses, 1080 nucleons) keeping neutrinos encaged while outgassing at the cosmic surface; the "light-speed constant" in the early cosmic gravitation and energy densities slowed neutrinos (as inside star-massive objects,- and the cosmos is sparse only since its primordial helium cooled and condensed); And, then, it took twenty billion light-years for the most-energetic neutrinos to all escape across the open cosmos (sub-volt neutrinos remained caged till photon-transparency) ... meanwhile ... the question of residual neutrinos reduces to whether photons were rapidly absorbed in a process of final expansion acceleration of the cosmos plasma-gas before the neutrinos escaped (as neutrinos only deflect, and rarely) ... and whether neutrinos first to escape are returning first to a gravitationally (self)-closed cosmos, before the escaped photons ... And in any case, generated neutrinos might exceed photons, as supernova production of neutrinos is 100× more efficient than of photons and occurs often ... and the neutrino background radiation should be well-above the 3°K photon background]

What makes this important is that although neutrino-induced radiodecay measures seemingly exponential in the short-term physics, the cosmos of its selfsame "big-bang" theory, is rapidly expanding;- and, 4.6 billion years ago, measured in assumed-constant radiodecay, while the Earth was yet forming with its then-pair twin Venus in orbit, the cosmos was but 67% its present nominally 13.8 billion light-year diameter; 45% its present cross section; 30% its present volume; and the neutrino flux was near double its present density ... radiodecay was therefore triple its present rate. (Whence) the Earth is but nominally 3 billion years old-geologically, not including cosmic aging events, gravitational and electrostatic slowing of cosmic expansion, and local aging events: galaxy core hole condensation, nearby supernovae, passing rogue holes and neutron stars, micro-super-renovae in the debris-rich solar formation nebula,- dumping excess neutrinos disproportionately close to Earth;... Sol may, be third generation instead of second.

(Additional work shows that dinosaurs existed as soon as the Earth surface cooled to boiling water temperature.)

We can first-estimate this radiodecay eon-long-term rate, correcting for a near-constantly expanding cosmos, with, d/dt portion t = - k portion t * t-2 which solves with portion t = ek t-1 . In short-term radiodecay experiments the expansion of the cosmos is too slow to detect, but for eon-long-terms, this first-estimate is more accurate, but for gravitational slowing of the cosmic expansion rate.

Further of interest, IT-energies within nuclei, may make for a cosmic background energy extractor, much like the maser-laser design, adapted to higher nuclear energies.

[NOTE MOVED: nightside neutrino-scatter evidence]
[NOTE MOVED: SNO Sudbury Neutrino Observatory evidence]

A premise discovery under the title,

Grand-Admiral Petry
'Majestic Service in a Solar System'
Nuclear Emergency Management

1996, 2004