Cold Fusion

A few months prior to the cold-fusion newsbreak of 1989, I proposed anti-helon "Planckton" 4He*-catalysed cold fusion: The nuclear charge and mass of antihelon wind-down charge-drawn deuterons into close co-oscillatory subatomic orbits, encouraging deuteron fusion to begin spontaneously at a few radii;- Resultant 3helons or 3tritons (and possible 4helons when fusion occurs right near the anti-nucleus) as well as neutrons or protons, escape energetically, most missing the central antihelon:- occasionally deflecting off its fusion-activation energy an order of magnitude steeper and stabler than its nuclear surface potential.

[See also hot fusion much warmer than cold; warm fission; and beta-induced cold fission]

Researchers subsequently discovered that antiprotons are experimentally 4% stable in helium, forming momentary atoms:-- Therefor conjecturably, antihelons are even more stable in abundant hydrogen or especially deuterium: drawing pairs of protons or deuterons into tight proximity, which fusion and eject quickly before impinging the antihelon. [Antihelons drive-away 2 electrons, reducing crash, whereas antiprotons only lift a single 1s-electron to 2s-orbit]

"Like the alpha particle, the ant'helon or anti-alpha, sits within a 28 mega-electron-volt potential well, behind a 20 M-e-V barrier to anti-proton-escape: a decade steeper than its nuclear surface potential. For a single proton to annihilate with an anti-helon - as it can't extract an anti-proton from the nucleus at its orbital radius of about 50 femto-meters - it must plow-in or tunnel-in passed the surface positron shield - to reach one of the nuclear internal anti-protons: before it bounces away faster than a nucleus gyrates. Meanwhile the ant'helon collects two protons - which gyrate ... to nuclear fusion: Ejects the deuteron, and a neutrino, and starts again." [Similarly for deuterons]

(A more detailed calculated discussion I've given by "Prof. Harry", Spring lecture, Nuke-Chem 409 class.)

Further, antihelon tends stable captured in heavier (normal) atoms: eg. heavy-water, a convenient source of heavy hydrogen deuterons, contains oxygen: The antihelon cannot reach the oxygen nucleus because it is blocked by the dense filled inner-electron 1s-shell closed hard against penetration by added negative charged particles - slowed (thermalized) first at the filled 2s-shell: Despite its double charge giving it equal energy to expel the two electrons filling said 1s-shell, a portion of its energy is sapped raising the 2p-and 2s-electron orbits because it is not truly a replacement for a pair of electrons, and quickly deforms the inner atomic structure to a pseudo-carbon, raising and so reforming the 2s-and 2p-electron orbits to become as pseudo-1s and higher-yet pseudo-2s quickly radiating photons. Then more energy is radiated as it winds down onto the 1s-shell, pushing 1s-electrons to instantaneous mid-level orbits from which they quickly fall back: radiating energy. And, its greater slower mass [which causes it to share energy with both electrons simultaneously] shares 20% of its remaining potential energy with the oxygen nucleus - thus compensating and excluding the antihelon from the nuclear region because it has insufficient energy "to raise the 1-s electrons to 2-s, too-short a wave function to tunnel far below for that energy, neither speed nor freedom to close the 1-s electron shell against electron occupancy, and not near enough nuclear entanglement to reduce oxygen 2-s orbital energy structures to corresponding carbon 1-s levels." From there it gradually radiates energy, and becomes permanently ensconced.

It is conjecturable that antihelon is not, stable in lithium because it loses little energy 2x5.4eV ejecting the single 2s-electron, and the effectual collision energy can be near double by reason of antipodal kinetic sharing: and especially because the 1-s orbital is so much larger than for more strongly charged nuclei (50x as the oxygen conjectured antihelon-stablizing). And it is also conjecturable that antihelon catalyzed fusion is defeated by most non-noble heavy nuclei, because it works its way down deep, passing through 2s, 3s, 4s-electron orbits, to reach the 1s-shell too deep toward the nucleus, away from the available deuterons bonded by outer p,d,f electrons.

Furthermore, of noteworthy technological discussion: an antihelon attached to an oxygen meso-nucleus, denatures it to pseudo-carbon, which chemically reacts with heavy-water to form pseudo-carbon oxides, which further bond to the oxygen end of heavy-water molecules, allowing a continuing process: antihelon fusioning fresh deuterons, and releasing O2 from its replenishing oxygen collection.

Alternative methods (also proposed)

1989 Cold fusion (2006 comment)

The 1989 newsbreak apparently echoed discoveries as long ago as 1927-Sweden ... but the question remained, whether deuterium fusion was occurring.... One researcher had gotten into the search upon consideration of evidentially higher helium-3 count around volcanoes,- which indicated something in the magma far below, might: if radiodecay-alpha lithium-splitting was not the greater cause.

I later noted the possibility of mock cold fusion (See below) to cover those experimental instances of heat without neutron and alpha production, and possibly to warm-up the whole subject of cold-fusion power (See cheap Ni-58-burning particularly).

Note the possibility that, even as-supposed, cold fusion might be the result of laser-like stimulation,- not likely at the MeV-level their experiments would produce, as that would be a y-ray much too small itself and tending to exit their small experiment,- but possibly at low KeV levels where laser-like stimulation would put the fusion components "inside" the target-resultant nucleus, at some sub-nuclear level, where IT internal transitions would complete the then-inescapable task....

(Anecdote. I attended the 1990 World Hydrogen Energy conference as a magazine guest, and thought it well presented: There was more than cold fusion on the table, -and many authors of that,- including the hydrogen-powered HSST, etc. The cold fusion discussions, my primary reason for attending, included concepts of thermal resonances that suggested per that author the effects would be seen at more than one specific temperature.)

Mock cold fusion

At this 12/4/96 writing, the case being not closed on the "cold-fusion" flurry in the early '90's, I'd proposed they look also at the palladium used in the experiment,- as 102Pd isotope exists stably but is in fact the recessive daughter-product of 102Rh radiodecay, and, I suggested, the interstitial interposition of deuterons may warp the electron orbitals sufficiently into the nucleus zone to push it up the nuclear activation energy hill and induce it to tunnel-through by double-beta-capture with gamma emission, transmuting to the dominant daughter-product 102Ru releasing energy as palladium-burning, mocking cold-fusion: Energy released is 1.17MeV, 13 billion °K;- maybe enough to trigger a few deuteron fusions or [stimulate] more-abundant 110Pd to double-beta-decay past 110Ag to its-dominant daughter 110Cd releasing 2.00MeV and possibly Beta-chaining,- and so obfuscate prevalent cold-fusionist theories.

(Although palladium usefully exhibits high deuterium affinity, the smaller atomic helium -having also the highest ionization potential, to retain its neutrality- might reach deeper to the nucleus.)

[7/10/98; 3/12/2006 rev.]
It is equally notable that similar cold-fusion process has been reported for nickel, and I suggest that likewise 58Ni under deuteron-induced electron orbital warp might tunnel through 58Co to 58Fe releasing 1.88MeV (note that 58Ni is not a daughter product of 58Co); And that the result has not occurred for platinum, where the only energy-rich 190Pt exists by 0.01% natural abundance, a minute fraction if it has any effect (It is also radioactive by alpha-decay and might have been removed and depleted platinum used). [2006: deleted my statement re 192Pt-192Os 413KeV-cooling: Handbook nuclide mass-energy values include the electron cloud; others do not]

[6/6/2005] Also I note in taxonomic data that radio-54Mn has a similar split between 6%-abundant recessive daughter product 54Fe and dominant daughter product 54Cr,- which might make for a source of energy called, iron-burning; And similarly through radio-64Cu from recessive 69%-abundant 64Zn to dominant 64Ni, for zinc-burning; ... (through radio-70Ga if radio-70Zn spallation coincides).

This article was further developed for a project Sesquatercet movie-story.

A premise discovery under the title,

Grand-Admiral Petry
'Majestic Service in a Solar System'
Nuclear Emergency Management

[1988] 1996-98, 2002, 2006