Oft discussed, oft erudite, oft esoteric, oft arcane, paradoxes at the edge of infinity and infinitesimal oft exposing flaws in linguistic analysis, thinkabouts with answers not otherwise attainable... |

[See also uniform convergence and 'infinity comp']

#1. The edge of infinitesimal can be illustrated by the following comparison:

`{y = x ; y = 0}`

;

`{y = x`

.
^{2} ; y = 0}

Both systems, pairs of equations, have an intercept at [x y] = [0 0]. However, the first
system instantly diverges while the second does not: For x = ∂, infinitesimal not
identically zero, the first diverges to [∂ ∂] on a slope of δ=1; while in the
second [∂ ∂²] the y-value is an infinitesimal of the x-value itself, on a slope
of δ = 0,—challenging the notion that the two curves in the second system intercept
at only one, point, when a slope of 0 is satisfied by an adjacent y-value actually =0, (x≠0,y=0),
but-yet which slope lasts only x-distance-length =0 which is-not a slope but a point, so its slope=0
is only in-the-limit, as the slope on either side is negative or positive and only zero can lie between,
so a lone point would not have a single-slope but a discontinuous pair of slopes = 0± =
±1/∞ ≠ 0, (*the usual proof of derivative-slope is that the point is midway
on a curve with chord-slope=0 and therefore there exists a tangent-slope=*0). The finite
interpretation is that a difference in x results in no difference in y for zero slope, and
infinitesimal times zero should likewise not—not if 0.999... = 1.000....
But eventually y diverges infinitesimally when x exceeds infinitesimal, to the square-root
of infinitesimal in this case, though not-yet finitesimal. Thus there is a tower
structure in the transfinitesimal, qualification, range, and infinity is not the
direct extension of arbitrarily large, and induction has a ways further to go—never
crossing the chasm between finity and infinity, though mathematicians had long presumed.

Let's consider more closely:

`y = e`

;
^{-1/x} : x>0 ; y=0

its first y equivalent to:

`y = e`

,
^{-n} : n=1/x : x>0

like the number 1.000...-0.999... at its n-th fraction-digit: this system converges slower-still near x=0,
And is discontinuous there: Its first y-derivative is `e`

which is about ^{-1/x}/x² : x>0`e`

but even as n→∞ and nears x=0 it
never reaches y=0 nor slope=0: For n to reach infinity -its all- is no sooner than 1/x and its discontinuity...
Thus implicating a class principle of continuity, versus a distinction between 0.999... and 1.000...,
and a regradation among finitely vs. infinitely, Any, Each, Every, All.
^{-n} n²

#2. Integration of derivative leftovers:

One of the early calculus paradoxes was why we'd take derivatives without keeping infinitesimal excesses somewhere in the result for later re-integration to recover exactly the original rather than arbitrate with some additive constant...

#3. Is 1/n : n→∞ closed or open:

As n→∞, 1/n→0 but does it = 0 or = 0+ when n goes infinite (*albeit finite never does*)...

(*cf e ^{-1/z} = supra-∞-pole at z = 0-, = 1 at z = 0 along the y-axis, = 0 at z = 0+*)...

1/0+ = +∞,

1/0- = -∞,

but 1/0 is undefined, not = ±∞

(*except 1/0 is-defined symbolically-logically as used in projective geometry, yet still-not
positive-or-negative-infinity*)...

#4. A simple infinity-race-paradox:

A and B play infinity-paradox games: In the simplest, A and B both, iteratively pick successive numbers one higher than the other—so ultimately which of A or B picks the highest number, Does an ultimate exist, Does it change by who-goes-first (*equality of plays*), Do we call it a tie because neither succeeds ahead of the other...

#5. Zeno time-forced-decision paradox:

Suppose they play faster with practice, and each pick takes 10% less time ergo the total time is 1/(1-90%) = 10 units, and the last play is done, so there must be an answer; Do they tie-win as neither can finally pick the largest, or more specifically did they transition into infinite-counting, so they infinity-tie, But, how do they transition to 10 units of time: they take one-last 'final' infinitesimal time-step (*which for Zeno was like 1/10 ^{n} n→∞*); But when, did finite-counting transition to infinite-open-count; And, does countable-infinity transition to uncountable-infinity (

Between the finitesimals (*the infinite-set-of, as there is no smallest nonzero finitesimal*) and, infinitesimal, is an
infinitesimal step, And, likewise-between infinitesimal and zero, is an infinitesimal step, (*two, infinitesimals, sum,
to infinitesimal, but in this case each is distinct—much like we compute derivatives
right-down-to-infinitesimal-divided-by-infinitesimal-being-a-ratio-slope, retains distinction*)...

#6. Advanced game where the first player accumulates a list of picks:

The same goes for the game of picking a list of fractions to include all-fractions-not-previously-included, Does A's list include B's last exceptional single, or does B ultimately get the last not in A's all-inclusive list... and is custodian C's sweep of everything B discards, as large as A's list except for the first-play B never picked....

Consider where A picks the very-number B picked, to be the next-number in A's list—does B ultimately pick the infinite-last not-in-the-list, or does A ultimately include B's last into the list, (*same race as above*)...

(*Note that this implicates the number of B-picks is also countable, so it's probably not the case that B had more.*)

For if-so then the number of irrationals is countable for the list of all fractions generated high-digits-first must include every single fraction of eventually in-the-time-constrained-sense infinitely many digits...

But whereas the number of steps is deemed countable, does countable become uncountable when it goes
infinite—(*is infinity countable*)...

(*We also note that the whole process of generating outpicks is a finite—ergo countable—process [construction]
so the count of outpicks cannot be 'uncountable' as so many mathematicians have supposed... Also one might
-try to- find a procedure for generating 'all' irrationals into a 'superdiagonal' list—for starters ^{n}√m/k
which already include, all rationals, and expand that by periodically replacing natural numbers by other such
algebraically generated rationals and irrationals—but then there'd be transcendentals to generate, too, and,
super-'esoteric'-transcendentals that aren't generated by any elementary function....*)

Note that this 'argument, walks-right-into-the-rational-saloon' where the last digit of e.g. 1/7th is unknown though time-runs-out and must be determinable-if-and-only-if 'the-last-digit' exists, in-the-limit... but then so-likewise the last-digit of 0.999... is-not-determinable though 'we-think-we-know'—'logically-demanding'—it must be a '9'—the infinity-fact is that there is no-last in an infinite, sequence,—no matter what its value is supposed-to-be, logically, symbolically... 'intimidatingly' ('proof-by-intimidation—because-I-said-so'—evokes sidebar giggling)...

#7. Ultimate Zeno:

What is the value of n immediately preceding Achilles = Tortoise... and, the value immediately preceding that, i.e. if
infinite (*for an infinitesimal distance-difference*) then when did n transition from finite to infinite—who, takes,
those very-last-one-more-steps to the limit from open-set toward closed-set, if mathematical numbers cannot... and,
how many infinitesimal last-steps are there, once the first infinitesimal is reached (*an infinitesimal of an infinitesimal
is infinitesimal, nonzero*)....

As the difference in the last-few-steps becomes (1/∞)² for 1/∞
(*or smaller for 1/10 ^{∞}*), does the one-last-step make one-larger-than-countable-infinity
enough to reach the limit, or is it a logically separable process [regime]...

Counting infinity is already larger than infinity in that infinity always has room for infinite more than counted...

We say ∞ = ∞+1 which is true in the finite context, but unless infinitesimal = zero the points thereat must be orderable in a Zenoic utility sense—the space between successive infinitesimals is infinitesimal-squared O(1/∞)²...

#8. Uncountable is not-much larger than countable:

If the step from 'Zenoic' infinite-open (1/∞) to infinite-closed (= 0) is one, step, then the number of irrationals must be uncountable in an expanded-property-sense (*cf quaternions lose commutativity but as anti-commutative*), and these are thus only indirectly-countable associated one-for-one with a countable... e.g. in the Lebesgue paradox which is merely Zeno's paradox applied to the full interval of rationals *(m/n rather than 1/n*), the rationals are
zero-width points while the fill-in-closures indirectly-countable-one-each between the rationals have length-measure
where point-to-point-spacing becomes 'closed' (*ergo integrable*)....

#9. 'All digits' (*open-infinite*) of a fraction:

Specifying a fraction by its infinitely-many digits must have the same infinite-open constraint—that it's not-closed though infinitesimally-close to the number-intented, because it has a leftover infinitesimal-value-last-step-to-closure, even under the Zenoic-time-constraint that leaves closure to one-last-infinitesimal-time-step....

This, is how, indirectly-countable-fill-in-closure-irrationals are infinitesimal-intervals, not zero-width points such as
rationals (m/n), but between points... in fact any number defined by asymptotic infinite series, such as also
repeating-decimal form rationals, is an infinitesimal-interval (*having Lebesgue measure*)—which is why we
say the irrationals are included in the top-down-digit-construction of decimals... (*Note that points also include all the
definitively constructible irrationals such as ^{m}√n/k and as well limits, definitively one-step-beyond
nonterminating, one-step-beyond Open definition, etc...*).

#10. Zeno-type relative-race decisions:

#10a. velocity as speed coming vs going—

A line of movie-goers with tickets proceeds to the open entrance door and without stopping each flashes their ticket
at the usher and continuing walks through into the theatre... Assuming the velocity is constant for each goer at entry,
we consider the relative-velocity of approaching the door as positive and receding as negative... But is their velocity
right-in-the-doorway, positive, negative, zero (*like an average*), all velocities within those limits, no velocity...
certainly the velocity is bounded within the positive and negative limits-values...

But more reasonably, like (#3) 1/0 is undefined but 1/0± = ±∞, velocity is undefined, at a single,
zero-width, point, (*it's not-directly-defined except by including 'in-the-limit' in the definition, translating from logical
to arithmetical*)—ergo it takes an infinitesimal (*or finitesimal*) step on the abscissa, to derive a slope, a
velocity... so, velocity=0 in a tangential sense (*symmetrically equal infinitesimal time at equal instantaneous
acceleration on either side of zero yields equal distance, cf the y=x² case of #1 but squarely*)...

In a sense this is the Cartesian-to-Polar transformation problem with infinitesimals...

But it also 'sneaks' into math-problems such as the search-for-principal-roots of x↑x (*exponential tower of
x^x^x^...*) where mathematicians chortle over x↑x = 2,4, (*but consider logx ↑x = ↑x yet x=1 has
no derivable-convergeable answer-path*)...

#10b. removing a zero-width point—

Can you 'remove' a single, point, where there's always 'infinitely' many more zero-width points right there... ergo, we must remove 'all' points, at a point, but which implicates removal of an infinitesimal, interval, around the point—as there must be no, zero-width, points remaining, once all such are removed...

#10c. 'division' aka the ratio of intervals closed vs half-closed—

Mathematicians always had a problem in computing π (pi) where the circumference is half-closed-half-open but the radius is both-ends-closed... or... the circumference must be one-point-redoubled, with its infinitesimal-extra... either way an infinitesimal difference, this time in a division...

The problem also existed in the original definition of 'division' of numbers, as, taken-to-mean both numerator and denominator were both-ends-closed, else they'd be both-infinitesimally-off when ratioed, which factors-in to fractionalize the ratio of their infinitesimal distinctions thus remaining infinitesimally-off except for n/(d=n), e.g. 3-∂/2-∂ ≈ (3/2)+(∂/4)+O(∂²)...

#10d. Half-points by ordinary division—

In the general case of numbers, compared with intervals, we actually learned to work with half-points, e.g. dividing numbers 1 by 2 must start and end with the same objects, numbers per se but we mean here well-defined numbers: if closed intervals, the result must be closed intervals but then without duplication of endpoints—ergo half, endpoints, in the sense of one-sided so that the resulting equal subintervals abut closed without sharing: resulting in half--or-partial-endpoints and intervals closed 'ambi-clusively'...

#11. Moving within a bin:

If a sample is tossed back into its original infinite source set, will it ever be found again... p = 1/∞ →0+.

#12. Subtraction:

If 2 are added and 1 is removed, iteratedly infinitely, does it fill, or does it empty because each added is eventually
removed, Differentially it fills, Does the outcome change by subprocessing, renaming, renumbering the entries or
exits (*reducing the probability of finding each; is infinity dependent on probability*), How-about by
regrouping/reordering the summations e.g 1+(1-1)+(1-1)+(1-1)+... vs 1+1-(1-1)-(1-1)-(1-1)+....

#13. Knock-off paradoxes:

#13a. Infinite outer cosmos, finite inner cosmos—

where infinitesimal processes integrated over infinite-time-preceding and infinite-space-to-occur resulted in finitesimal particles and objectifications, e.g. the cosmos-we-know-inside and infinitely-many-preceding and-to-come-after outside but the travel-distance to the next exo-cosmos may exceed the existence time of either, whence there is no intercommunication in the present tense but for occupants who've preexisted in some-other long-long-long,-ago....

#13b. Particles—

are energy convolved on itself at the local speed-of-energy (*i.e. light speed*) no faster nor slower but for
exponentially-diminishing terms, and so steering-diverting to new course by absorbing energy (*e.g. a photon*)...

#13c. Time travel—

means being aware that your future-self is attempting to communicate back to you now vs. being aware of
cause-and-effect now... alternatively would need FTL-travel and cosmic synchronization to reach time-forward or
time-past cosmic situations at distances ahead or behind, within story-time, or, would have zero-mass (*as being
developed in my Plan of Time screenplay*)—or a cosmic-aether-mass-energy-resource but n.b.
gravity-potential-energy is already its extended mass-energy 'halo'... (*or, wackier, e.g.
coming-from-behind-to-arrive-before as in Einsteinian Relativity*).

#14. Stability, convergent differences:

#14a. series Σ^{∞}1/n total = odds + (evens = 1/2 total) so odds = 1/2 total but odds - evens
= (1/2) + (1/12) + (1/30) +... → ln 2, finite difference;

Unless, half-speed sampling of evens 'gains at half-speed' and comes-up with a 'smaller' infinity—the issue of infinite countability must include Zeno-speed-rates....

#14b. Riemann analytic continuation is pointwise convergent not uniformly, convergent....

CLOSING SIDEBAR COMMENT:

*'Linguistics, type-one intelligence language, is sufficiently concise for defining exact sciences and mathematics.'*

A premise discovery under the title,

'Majestic Service in a Solar System'

Nuclear Emergency Management