|the sun is a thermionic emitter; charged, electron-retentive|
[This article is related to the solar sun spot cycle data, and the regathering of the solar wind]
The sun surface is a hot atomic plasma about 5800°K radiating the daylight we see on Earth. But sun-telescopic studies and especially orbiting satellite telescopes, reveal a large tenuous halo about the sun, much hotter by millions °K than the visible photosphere:--
At 5.8K°K the sun surface is highly energized and slightly ionic: a good thermionic emitter of electrons and charged nuclei. (The work function of monatomic hydrogen is 13.6 volts, about 150K°K, needed to completely ionize 'pure' hydrogen already dissociated at 4.4.)
Ionization-freed electrons stream away much faster than heavy nuclei, being 1/1836th the lightest nucleus mass, the proton: The free electron velocity is 43x faster than the free proton at a common temperature. Additionally, hot free electrons deflect hyperbolically through the plasma, while protons are quickly recaptured by non-ionized neighbors, photo-radiate the energy they've gained, and float back twice as heavy, reducing the free-proton population; Plus, free electrons are energized by the abundant visible-energy photons,- while protons are energized mostly only by much-shorter-wavelength very-high-energy photons tail-exponentially less abundant.
The free electrons thus readily escape the sun's gravity,- leaving the sun surface positively charged,- till, at equilibrium, the massive, charged free protons bouyed on the sun's charge repulsion, and the electrons extremely retarded by that same solar charge, escape in numbers rate-equal at some distance --and eventually speed-equal at further distance, albeit remaining mostly ionized (detached) as a rarefied electroplasma wind, overall-neutral till the combined population finds itself and recombines eventually to atomic-gas wind in the heliopause so-designated.
The cosmic-scale lay is a charged sun, its early-missing electron-Coulombs at galactic distance, an interstellar heliopause hot-breezing fast as the electroplasma wind supplying it ... And, On solar-scale is the sun with an extremely-hot corona of electrons that can't-but-escape the super-plus of photospheric charge as fast as protons 1836x more massive and 1836x more energy therefor ... The corona is tenuous-enough to let protons escape directly while performing as an efficient overcharged proton-accelerator zone.
The solar corona retained within about 3 solar radii, to about 2M°K, -meaning electrons are predominantly-not-above orbital velocity below that distance,- implies a velocity of 5000 mi./sec. against a total retaining-charge 8@6 stronger than surface gravity: about 8 Coulombs total ... A portion of charge elevates above the surface, spreading thin to great depth a halo, corona, of tenuous hot charged plasma of charge-bouyant protons reaching far from the sun accelerating away intermingled with hot free electrons cooling slowing to match rate, an equilibrated portion accompanying ultimately. The lower region of the layer resides on the surface and is dominated by partially-protonic-enriched hydrogen; mid-region protons are bouyed on this charge and further bouy the upper region; the outermost region's protons are almost gravity-compensated by the sun-charge, where free electrons have slowed and neutralized the overcharge, thus suppressing much of the sun's positive charge below, almost to inversion.
The solar wind velocity, about 1Mmph-average at Earth, 4Mmph blustery in flare events, 1KeV, 16KeV in events, is equivalent to about 11M°K but linear rather than thermal entropic, 6x hotter than the very-hot electrons retained within the corona ... much of the proton kinetic-energy comes from the solar-charge lift, possibly therefor as much as 50 Coulombs, simple-estimate.
This charge, by mutual repulsion, tends to reside near the sun surface and bouy a layer of the lightest nuclei:-- The hydrogen nucleus proton (H+ = p+) is bouyed the most, and dominates the outer layer. But the sun interior is much hotter, and drives electrons out, thus moving the positive charge deeper inward: Beneath is a species-enhanced zone of what rare deuterium and helium-3 have survived the sun's 10M°K central fusion engine and dispersed and diffused to the higher depths, plus very-temporal molecular hydrogen ions (H2+). (Deuterium is readily consumed after production in the core; Most of the surviving helium-3 resides within the sun's meso-core out to where temperatures range about 600K°K, above its double-ionization temperature, because the central core is also positively charge-enhanced by its extreme temperature, and doubly-charged helium-3 is electrostatically nearly as light as singly-charged hydrogen-1,- the dominant constituent of the sun's interior except its core; Outside that meso-core the lower temperature lets less-bouyant singly-charged helium-3 settle back, while hydrogen remains fully-charged until cooled much farther out from the meso-core.) (*)
* (CME Coronal Mass Ejections are known to have much higher helium concentration;- coming from the concentration next-below.)
And tending lower in that second outer layer is species-enhanced doubly-charged helium-4 (He4++), and other multiply-charged proton-neutron-balanced nuclei, mingled with hydrogen moving in and out: the rising and falling hydrogen permeating these two blending zones. But the top layer is distinct as it is comprised predominantly of ionized hydrogen which eventually captures an electron and falls back onto the sun's top-surface: serving as a fast transport mechanism for carrying sub-million-degree energy into its own upper regions.
A premise discovery under the title,