planet Earth

a solar-temperate-zone habitable planet with a large moon

[UNDER RECONSTRUCTION; gathering notes from...2000...appending Mars parallel habitability...]

AGE OF THE EARTH:

Age-measure of Earth uranium depends on general radiodecay-rate stability over billions of years during which the universe estimably expanded 3.4× its volume in 4.6 billion years; And the cosmic background neutrino flux of all energies is less calculable, depending on cosmic gravitational-closure curvature and cycle-time, initial [post-Big-Bang] neutrino density, supernovae neutrino generation rates and post-nova mass-attrition rates by galactic "dark matter" hordes of rogue neutron stars and black holes, and black-hole population neutrino-attrition rates. Elastic neutrino-nuclear collision energies prompt nucleon alpha and beta tunneling, and affect the total radiodecay rates... the Earth may yet be decidedly younger by half. (*)

* (The cosmic background radiation temperature also dropped by that same factor or-less from 10+°K, to below 3°K today.)

BIOLOGICAL-HABITABLE TIME: One billion years.

The existence of water oceans is almost as old as the overestimated-4.6 billion years of Earth's presence in the solar system (as soon as water was available; much has been suggested attributed to later lunar comet hordes), as the depth of ocean even atop magma glowing white hot, is all but the top 800 m (remaining as superheated vapor above), and the total-average depth of ocean on Earth was -about- 2600 m ... leaving 1800 m of superheated water scouring its early-ocean seabottom of chemicals ... but it would have been much too hot for even today's extremophile undersea vent-worms.

Pure water is a good thermal insulator inasmuch as it is non radiative even by its own hydrogen-oxygen flame, but impurities in the early ocean seawater, though clouding it black above the glowing magma, would have glowed brightly that hot ... thus the Earth cooled by convection of superheated dirty water hot enough to glow [red] below its heavily dampened atmosphere ... cooling of the Earth was not fast: It was cooking.

The Earth formed in the early pre-solar nebula (with all the planets) at rock-melting temperatures, and cooled at a rate estimated in semi-classical physics as "gray-body" radiation ... eventually it cooled enough to deposit metal, nodules, on the seafloor ... and ultimately it cooled enough that dinosaurial creatures, possibly vent-worms, could survive ... but that was only approximately a billion years ago: by fossil records: The atmosphere had to cool and increase oxygen before big, land creatures would take residence.

But before that eventuality, the sea temperature inverted-- for a period the top and the floor were the same temperature, and there was no more convection [of significance].

Early sea dinosaurs must have therefor developed almost immediately -in geological epochal relative terms- while the Earth was yet steamy weathering rock into sand, and sand into dirt for vegetation ... though the earliest vegetation must have been semi-hydroponic, growing in tidal pools. True vegetation came as quickly as it could, and aided both conversion of rock to soil and atmosphere to oxygen.

(cf GEN1 -In the beginning the Earth was without form, and void, and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters ... and on the fourth day [type] the stars became visible-.)

WATER ON THE MOON: More deposited by one midlatitude ice-comet, than migrated at the poles.

NASA's Lunar Prospector neutron-spectrometry experiments found statistically significant hydrogen, indicating mostly subsurface water-ice, 20° across the north pole 88° and south pole 90°: 50%-more in the north pole.... However, It also found upto-100%-more hydrogen implanted 25° centered 40° north on the near side, tail twirled into the moon, and peppered centered 40° south on the far side ... Meaning, a brief massive ice storm in recent history impacted water into the moon,- recently enough to still show more water than the solar-eonic poles: and considering evaporation rates in lunar-month sun the remnant water must be deeper than at the poles and significantly more than 100%-more.... Since nearside had a narrow hit, and tail, but farside had significant centering amid a full hemispheric hit, we can estimate that the source was a dual-head ice-terroid gravitationally held by an extended ice-comma within a broader hydrogen-rich cosmic molecular ice cloud: its long tail twirl nearside suggests a gravitationally-compact rotating ice-comma being funneled-in from the cloud till severed as the cloud impacted the farside, fallen back alone on the moon nearside.

ORBIT AND YEAR: Cosmic expansion effects.

A theory-variable is noticeable in the orbital revolution of Earth about our sun: It would appear that the expanding cosmos, in the expanding-space version of the theory, being essentially isotropic, raises the orbital radius of every process, moons, planets, stars, galaxies, supergalactic clusters, atoms and nuclei (but with quantum fallback heating *): Any orbit or orbital in free-space, being a balance of trajectory angular momentum and central holding force, the expansion of space-itself 'gently' lifts the orbitation away from its center, whereto it has excess linear velocity, than the directly-higher orbitation, which carries it yet equally farther: a rate of recession twice the cosmic expansion velocity... whence Earth's orbit ca 4.6 Ga, 2/3 of the age of the cosmos today, was (2/3)² of today's 93 million miles ~ 41 million miles (**), much closer than Venus is today, and so orbiting faster in a shorter period of (2/3)³ ~ 0.2963 today's-year ~ 108 days... The effect is likewise for elliptical orbits as for circular, And note also that gravitational interaction among the solar system planets also affects the orbits of each, and so Earth may need aeonic maintenance...

* (Note that in the case of atoms, the increase of electron orbital radius cannot be sustained by its wavelength, and the electron drifts back in, -along with the radius of every object held up by 'rigid' atomic radii,- and slowly, below experimental-precision, radiates the excess energy, both atomic-electronic and, gravitational: heating the interior of planets--which is an already-known-anomaly for Earth...instead of continually increasing its size...)

** (N.B. if cosmic expansion is nearer critical-mass 'stop-at-infinity' as contemporary cosmology suggests, though it is probably much less after untold-or-infinite-cycles-preceding, or effectually much more if not-yet-all-collapsed before its central-hollowing Big Bang keeping it accelerating until its finality, then Vcosmos(R,T) = (R(T)/Rcosmos) · R˙cosmos = (R(T)/T(2/3)) (2/3) T(-1/3) = (2/3) R(T) / T , and twice-that for orbitals: VR = 2 Vcosmos(R,T) ⇒ ∂R(T)/∂T = (4/3) R(T) / T , which by-inspection solving a polynomial-form for its average orbital radius R(T) = Σk Rk Tk ⇒ the expansion equation Σk Rk k Tk-1 = (4/3) Σk Rk Tk-1 ⇒ k = 4/3 (i.e. Rk≠4/3 = 0), whence R = R4/3 T4/3 , cumulatively (2/3)4/3 of today's 93 million miles ~ 54 million miles (0.58 AU) still significantly closer than Venus is today: 1.72× for unit-parabolic expansion vs. 2.25× for unit-hyperbolic, today, except, cosmic-expansion, space-expansion, gravity, spacetime-relativity, are not-yet understood for large distances and velocities, especially super-lightspeed-distances... Compare also for no-gravity-decapture-boost the orbit expansion is just the cosmic expansion itself...)

At six millennia ago this would have been (1-(6000 yr / 13.82 Ga))³, ~ 8.68@-7 shy ~ 27.4 sec. shorter than 365.2425 days ~ 365.2422 days/year which just happens to be the same as our present year except our day itself is longer as the Earth rotation has slowed the same tidally torqued by the moon and sun...

In a billion years from now, when, as astronomers now estimate, our sun will become too hot for Earth to have liquid water, (long before the sun becomes a bloated orange giant and swallows Earth in 5-billion), its orbit distance from the sun will be (14.82/13.82)² ~ 1.15 AU, ameliorating by (1.15)-2/4 ~ 7% the higher temperatures, delaying somewhat the 'inevitable' sunbaked whelming...

(Cautionary note: The contemporary problem of 'global warming' due to 'greenhouse gases' is quite independent-of and significantly faster-than this solar-and-orbital adjustment, And, 'worse for the politicians-all' the next few decades are estimated to cool somewhat with the reduction-and-lengthening of the solar cycle intensity, similar to the cooling in the early few 1800's decades, before resuming the more-usual solar-activity and attendant centurial heating...)

(Also note, that, in the case of recently discovered mini-gas-planets 'mini-neptunes' around other stars, their viability may be impinged by the subsequent slower expansion of the cosmos, VHubble ≈ D / Tcosmos ≈ c at 13.82@9 light-years so far: leaving a greater portion of otherwise-potentially habitable rocky planets, closer, to their suns over their next-4.6 Gyr than Earth in its previous-4.6 Ga, (4/3)² vs. (3/2)², and so warmer, and 'early-viable-Mars' sub-mini-gas-planets losing their atmospheres faster and thereby sooner before their 'later-viable-Earths' are habitable... a cosmic 'global planetary warming problem'... N.B. Earth will recede that-further too, beyond Mars' present orbit, possibly becoming a 'global cooling problem' before the sun achieves its 'global heating problem', while Venus may experience geologically-briefly a 'global cooling improvement'...)

(Note, As twin planets with Venus, the two started in-between 0.32 and 0.44 AU, ca 0.38 AU, probably as mini-gas-planets 'mini-Neptunes' boiling-away their proto-atmospheres just-inside today's Mercury-orbit...as suggested by the recent Kepler-11 results...meanwhile sub-mini-gas-planets Mars and its twin Astrus started in-between 0.68 and 1.24 AU, ca 0.90 AU, today's 'balmy zone'...)

N.B. a most-important caveat, that, contemporary astronomers detect much slower local expansion of Earth's orbit: instead of this-above 150e9 m / (13.82e9 lyr × 9.46e15 m/lyr) × 3.00e8 m/s × 2 ~ 6.88e-7 m/s ~ 59.5 mm/day ~ 21.7 m/yr recession, they're finding only 15 cm/yr (and some go so far as to suggest the sun is swallowing 'dark-matter', an unlikely prospect on its passing-through); We therefor append several additional notes, that: 1. in order for space to expand it must have been dragged by the Big Bang, (n.b. similarly galaxies and galaxy-clusters would significantly drag their interior aether-space, giving rise to dark-matter estimates), so it's not all purely expanding space, 2. in any exploding-energy version of the theory all processes would be gaining potential energy which is rest-mass-energy in the case of slow particles, and increasing gravitational attraction, and heating in shrinking particle-momentum-wavelengths, and so reducing the effect on orbital expansion, 3. the total depends on all realms of gravitation out-to-infinity, the local solar system, the local interstellar-galactic-arm system, the local intergalactic system, the local visible-cosmos system, the total-Big-Bang system to beyond the CMB, the local outer-cosmic system, and, the infinite beyond, all divergence-and-convergence contributing to the increase-or-decrease of local-mass and thereby conversely local-orbits, and, 4. there exist records of even greater expansion but which need be researched for accuracy: in particular the ancient-to-archaic Surya Siddhanta calculation of the sidereal year three known values, one like our-modern calculation but the other two much larger yet which do correspond, the most-recent to eight-digit-accuracy, to our 'anomalistic year' (the interval between perihelia, probably because the first-meaning of 'where' was, nearness, in the primitive civil-defense mindset), at 365.2596296 (newest, cf 365.259636) - 365.258756481 (var ref oldest ca AD 400; correctible to 365.2586 for Earth rotation slowing) = 0.0008731 (0.00102) days-per-year, 2-3× the expansion expected for four-thousand years since Abraham visited India....

Grand-Admiral Petry
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