|a solar-temperate-zone habitable planet with a large moon|
[UNDER RECONSTRUCTION; gathering notes from...2000...appending Mars parallel habitability...]
* (The cosmic background radiation temperature also dropped by that same factor or-less from 10+°K, to below 3°K today.)
Pure water is a good thermal insulator inasmuch as it is non radiative even by its own hydrogen-oxygen flame, but impurities in the early ocean seawater, though clouding it black above the glowing magma, would have glowed brightly that hot ... thus the Earth cooled by convection of superheated dirty water hot enough to glow [red] below its heavily dampened atmosphere ... cooling of the Earth was not fast: It was cooking.
The Earth formed in the early pre-solar nebula (with all the planets) at rock-melting temperatures, and cooled at a rate estimated in semi-classical physics as "gray-body" radiation ... eventually it cooled enough to deposit metal, nodules, on the seafloor ... and ultimately it cooled enough that dinosaurial creatures, possibly vent-worms, could survive ... but that was only approximately a billion years ago: by fossil records: The atmosphere had to cool and increase oxygen before big, land creatures would take residence.
But before that eventuality, the sea temperature inverted-- for a period the top and the floor were the same temperature, and there was no more convection [of significance].
Early sea dinosaurs must have therefor developed almost immediately -in geological epochal relative terms- while the Earth was yet steamy weathering rock into sand, and sand into dirt for vegetation ... though the earliest vegetation must have been semi-hydroponic, growing in tidal pools. True vegetation came as quickly as it could, and aided both conversion of rock to soil and atmosphere to oxygen.
(cf GEN1 -In the beginning the Earth was without form, and void, and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters ... and on the fourth day [type] the stars became visible-.)
* (Note that in the case of atoms, the increase of electron orbital radius cannot be sustained by its wavelength, and the electron drifts back in, -along with the radius of every object held up by 'rigid' atomic radii,- and slowly, below experimental-precision, radiates the excess energy, both atomic-electronic and, gravitational: heating the interior of planets--which is an already-known-anomaly for Earth...instead of continually increasing its size...)
** (N.B. if cosmic expansion is nearer critical-mass 'stop-at-infinity' as contemporary cosmology suggests, though it is probably much less after untold-or-infinite-cycles-preceding, or effectually much more if not-yet-all-collapsed before its central-hollowing Big Bang keeping it accelerating until its finality, then Vcosmos(R,T) = (R(T)/Rcosmos) · R˙cosmos = (R(T)/T(2/3)) (2/3) T(-1/3) = (2/3) R(T) / T , and twice-that for orbitals: VR = 2 Vcosmos(R,T) ⇒ ∂R(T)/∂T = (4/3) R(T) / T , which by-inspection solving a polynomial-form for its average orbital radius R(T) = Σk Rk Tk ⇒ the expansion equation Σk Rk k Tk-1 = (4/3) Σk Rk Tk-1 ⇒ k = 4/3 (i.e. Rk≠4/3 = 0), whence R = R4/3 T4/3 , cumulatively (2/3)4/3 of today's 93 million miles ~ 54 million miles (0.58 AU) still significantly closer than Venus is today: 1.72× for unit-parabolic expansion vs. 2.25× for unit-hyperbolic, today, except, cosmic-expansion, space-expansion, gravity, spacetime-relativity, are not-yet understood for large distances and velocities, especially super-lightspeed-distances... Compare also for no-gravity-decapture-boost the orbit expansion is just the cosmic expansion itself...)
At six millennia ago this would have been (1-(6000 yr / 13.82 Ga))³, ~ 8.68@-7 shy ~ 27.4 sec. shorter than 365.2425 days ~ 365.2422 days/year which just happens to be the same as our present year except our day itself is longer as the Earth rotation has slowed the same tidally torqued by the moon and sun...
In a billion years from now, when, as astronomers now estimate, our sun will become too hot for Earth to have liquid water, (long before the sun becomes a bloated orange giant and swallows Earth in 5-billion), its orbit distance from the sun will be (14.82/13.82)² ~ 1.15 AU, ameliorating by (1.15)-2/4 ~ 7% the higher temperatures, delaying somewhat the 'inevitable' sunbaked whelming...
(Cautionary note: The contemporary problem of 'global warming' due to 'greenhouse gases' is quite independent-of and significantly faster-than this solar-and-orbital adjustment, And, 'worse for the politicians-all' the next few decades are estimated to cool somewhat with the reduction-and-lengthening of the solar cycle intensity, similar to the cooling in the early few 1800's decades, before resuming the more-usual solar-activity and attendant centurial heating...)
(Also note, that, in the case of recently discovered mini-gas-planets 'mini-neptunes' around other stars, their viability may be impinged by the subsequent slower expansion of the cosmos, VHubble ≈ D / Tcosmos ≈ c at 13.82@9 light-years so far: leaving a greater portion of otherwise-potentially habitable rocky planets, closer, to their suns over their next-4.6 Gyr than Earth in its previous-4.6 Ga, (4/3)² vs. (3/2)², and so warmer, and 'early-viable-Mars' sub-mini-gas-planets losing their atmospheres faster and thereby sooner before their 'later-viable-Earths' are habitable... a cosmic 'global planetary warming problem'... N.B. Earth will recede that-further too, beyond Mars' present orbit, possibly becoming a 'global cooling problem' before the sun achieves its 'global heating problem', while Venus may experience geologically-briefly a 'global cooling improvement'...)
(Note, As twin planets with Venus, the two started in-between 0.32 and 0.44 AU, ca 0.38 AU, probably as mini-gas-planets 'mini-Neptunes' boiling-away their proto-atmospheres just-inside today's Mercury-orbit...as suggested by the recent Kepler-11 results...meanwhile sub-mini-gas-planets Mars and its twin Astrus started in-between 0.68 and 1.24 AU, ca 0.90 AU, today's 'balmy zone'...)
N.B. a most-important caveat, that, contemporary astronomers detect much slower local expansion of Earth's orbit: instead of this-above 150e9 m / (13.82e9 lyr × 9.46e15 m/lyr) × 3.00e8 m/s × 2 ~ 6.88e-7 m/s ~ 59.5 mm/day ~ 21.7 m/yr recession, they're finding only 15 cm/yr (and some go so far as to suggest the sun is swallowing 'dark-matter', an unlikely prospect on its passing-through); We therefor append several additional notes, that: 1. in order for space to expand it must have been dragged by the Big Bang, (n.b. similarly galaxies and galaxy-clusters would significantly drag their interior aether-space, giving rise to dark-matter estimates), so it's not all purely expanding space, 2. in any exploding-energy version of the theory all processes would be gaining potential energy which is rest-mass-energy in the case of slow particles, and increasing gravitational attraction, and heating in shrinking particle-momentum-wavelengths, and so reducing the effect on orbital expansion, 3. the total depends on all realms of gravitation out-to-infinity, the local solar system, the local interstellar-galactic-arm system, the local intergalactic system, the local visible-cosmos system, the total-Big-Bang system to beyond the CMB, the local outer-cosmic system, and, the infinite beyond, all divergence-and-convergence contributing to the increase-or-decrease of local-mass and thereby conversely local-orbits, and, 4. there exist records of even greater expansion but which need be researched for accuracy: in particular the ancient-to-archaic Surya Siddhanta calculation of the sidereal year three known values, one like our-modern calculation but the other two much larger yet which do correspond, the most-recent to eight-digit-accuracy, to our 'anomalistic year' (the interval between perihelia, probably because the first-meaning of 'where' was, nearness, in the primitive civil-defense mindset), at 365.2596296 (newest, cf 365.259636) - 365.258756481 (var ref oldest ca AD 400; correctible to 365.2586 for Earth rotation slowing) = 0.0008731 (0.00102) days-per-year, 2-3× the expansion expected for four-thousand years since Abraham visited India....